CERN’s Large Hadron Collider

Insignificant though, this bottle of compressed hydrogen gas looks, it marks the beginning of the world’s largest and most powerful particle accelerator chamber culminating the Cern’s spectacular large hadron collider Hydrogen atoms from this gas cylinder fed at a precisely control rate into the source chamber of the linear accelerator CERN’s Linac2 where that electrons are stripped off to leave hydrogen nuclei these are protons and have a positive charge enabling them to be accelerated by an electric feild their journey to take part in ultra high-energy collisions similar to those following the big-bang can now begin this initial acceleration has caused Linac2 to be like into the numbering first stage of a huge rocket by the time this patch of protons leaves Linac2 it’ll be traveling at one-third the speed of light it’s about to enter the booster stage two of the rocket if you will in order to maximize the intensity of the beam the package is divided up into four one-threes of the booster rings straight acceleration is now impractical and the booster is circular a 157 meters in circumference in order to accelerate the packets they are repeatedly circulated and the electric feild is now pulsed in the same way you push a child on a swing each time they reach a certain point magnets exerts a force on the passing protons at right angles to their direction of motion and so powerful electro-magents are used to bend the beam of protons around the circle the booster accelerates the protons up to 91.6% of the speed of light and squeezes them closer together re combining the packets from the four rings it’s now flung on into the proton synchrotron by analogy stage three of our rocket let’s just follow two such proton packets the proton synchrotron is 628 meters in conference and they circulate for seconds reaching over and 99.9% percent of the velocity of light it’s here that the points of transition is reached a point where the energy added to the proton despite the pulsating electric field cannot translate into increase in velocity as they’re already approaching the limiting speed of light instead the added energy manifests itself as increasing mass of the protons in short the protons can’t go faster so they get heavier the microscopic kinetic energy each proton proton is measured in units called electron volts and that the energy of each proton has risen to 25 giga-electron-volts or GeV the proton tonight 25 times heavier that they are at rest the packets of protons and that channeled into stage four the super proton synchrotron a huge ring 7 kilometers in circumference designed specifically to accept protons at this energy and increase its to 450 GeVs soon the packets of protons will be energized sufficiently to be launched into the orbit of the gigantic large hadron collider or LHC which lies between the Jura Mountains and the Alps and startles both France and Switzerland Lying deep underground it a circumference of 27 kilometers.

There are two vacuum pipes within the LHC containing proton beams traveling in opposite directions using ultra-sophisticated kickers to synchronize incoming packets with those already circulating one vacuum pipes has injected into it protons which will circulate into it clockwise, and the other protons which will circulated anti-clockwise The counter-rotating beams crossover in the four detect covens, where they could be made to collide The energy of the collision is double that of the individual opposing protons and it’s the debris from these conditions that is trapped in the detectors For half an hour. the SPS injects protons. Finally, there are 2,808 packets. During this time the LHC adds extra energy to each proton, whose velocity is now so near the speed of light that it goes around the 27 kilometer ring over 11,000 times each second. getting a boost of energy each revolution from the pulsed electric field. Finally, each proton Has an energy of 7 terra electron-volts and they are 7,000 times heavier than at rest. The magnetic force needed to keep the beams bending to the ring is so enormous that nearly 12,000 Amps flow through its electromagnets.

This is a achieved by making the LHC colder than outer space so that it’s magnets become superconducting. Now the protons are ready to collide in the detect covens. A stereo magnets finally brings it to a collision course. The total energy of 2 protons colliding in the LHC is 14 terra electron-volts and reproduces similar states to moments after the big bang. Particle tracks from these collisions will be analyzed by computers connected to the detectors and its hoped these tracks will give a new insight into the very birth of our universe how our universe evolves what governs its behaviour today and where it’s going in the future.